The second annual volume of the international place branding yearbook this collection looks at the case for applying brand and marketing strategies and to the economic social political and cultural development of cities towns and regions around the world to help them compete in the global national and local markets. The international place branding yearbook 2012 managing smart growth and sustainability is the third annual volume in the yearbook series and looks at the case for applying brand and marketing . International place branding yearbook 2011 managing reputational risk frank m go robert govers the 2011 version of the international place branding yearbook builds on the achievements of its 2010 predecessor and provides a stimulating read for all those interested in this field. The place brand and place branding 39 building a place brand from scratch 41 is the rotterdam place brand path dependent 42 conclusions 45 5 beyond the fringe creativity and the city 47 nicholas ind louise todd introduction47 an organic perspective 48 the fringe49 the fringe as a brand 50 the fringe stakeholders 51. Place brands as well as other brands face the same risk in this technology driven and inter connected global village avraham 2009 argues that the prolonged negative media coverage focusing on conflict and violence for example egypt libya and iran and the impact of climate change and the perceived corrosion of territorial character has
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